Interventional Cardiology refers to procedure for treating structural heart disease. It is an invasive process where a catheter is inserted for complex procedures like:
- Coronary Angioplasties including Rotablation
- FFR guided PCI for Intermediate Lesions
Endovascular procedures like:
- Aortoiliac Angioplasty
- Aortic Aneurysm
- Dissection Management
- Carotid Stenting
- Birth Defects.
These procedures are assisted by imaging guidance such as IVUS and OCT used in complex Angioplasties and 3D TEE, CT Imaging during structural heart procedures. Our Biplane Cath Labs are equipped with latest technology and committed staff who has successfully achieved record time protocols in primary Angioplasty (Acute Heart Attack Angioplasty).
Angioplasties including Rotablation
The process of Angioplasty with rotablation is conducted in case of solid blockage in the heart artries. The process involves removal of calcified and solid blockage in the arteries. The calcified blockages are not easy to remove exclusively through angioplasty. In that case, a rotablator (or a small drill) is used to drill through the calcified blockage of arteries.
It is recommended by doctors in case the blocked arteries may not respond to angioplasty, a procedure where a tiny balloon at the end of a catheter is inserted into the artery to push aside the blockage. If the plaque is too hard and calcified, the process of rotablation is recommended. A rotablator is a drill with a diamond-coated burr on the end that fits into an artery and drills through the plaque. Without damaging the artery walls, it grinds the plaque into tiny pieces and lets it get washed away by the bloodstream. The body then processes and eliminates the plaque, leaving blood to flow again and supply the necessary nutrients and oxygen to the heart.
The procedure is done under local anaesthesia where the patient is awake and aware of the procedure. The catheter is usually inserted through groin or wrist area where the anaesthesia is given. It is a painless procedure.
FFR guided PCI for Intermediate Lesions
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) describes the ratio of the maximum achievable blood flow in the presence of a diseased coronary artery to the theoretical maximum blood flow in the normal coronary artery, in the absence of a stenosis. FFR determines whether or not a cardiac patient needs a stent or surgery, or can be given medication alone. Increasingly, FFR-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is being associated with beneficial outcomes as compared to angiography-guided PCI. A non-surgical method, percutaneous coronary intervention helps open narrowed arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This includes reductions in cardiac mortality and an overall use of health care resources.
In recent times, there has been a substantial increase in Aortoiliac Antioplasty and Stenting. Although historically, Aortofemoral Bypass (AFB) has been the preferred choice for treating Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease (AIOD), there has been a considerable decline in traditional treatments for AIOD. On the other hand, there has been a sharp rise in aortoiliac angioplasty and stenting due to its significant benefits.
An aortic aneurysm can be defined as a bulge in a section of the aorta, which is the body’s main artery. In such a case, the section with aneurysm is overstretched and weak. It can lead to serious bleeding upon bursting. While most aortic aneurysms have no symptoms, they can sometimes be detected during exams or tests. The treatment usually depends on the location of aneurysm and the overall health of the patient. There are two types of aortic aneurysms- Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (TAA) and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA).
An Aortic Dissection (AD) is a serious condition where an injury to the innermost layer of the aorta allows blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall. This forces the blood to leak outside the artery lumen, causing a split between the inner and middle layers of the wall of the aorta. At BLK Heart Centre, part of BLK Super Speciality Hospital, the invasive cardiology department has dealt with complex cases including dissection management. The procedures are assisted by CT imaging and comprehensive cardiac care by dedicated staff members.
Carotid Artery Stenting (CAS) is the procedure to open a narrowed carotid artery by placing a small, expandable tube called a stent in the narrowed artery. Stenting helps in opening up the artery and improving blood flow. It keeps the artery open after the balloon is removed and also prevents small pieces of plaque breaking off and causing a stroke. Assisted by imaging guidance, this procedure is offered at BLK Heart Centre, a state of the art fully-equipped cardiac care centre.
The Heart Team at BLK Heart Centre works in synergy to offer care for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Typically, serious congenital heart defects are seen soon after birth or during the initial months of life. The signs and symptoms includes rapid breathing, swelling in legs/abdomen and shortness of breath during feeding. Sometimes the less serious congenital heart defects may not be diagnosed until later, since the child may not have any noticeable signs. In older children the symptoms usually involve shortness of breath, tiredness, fainting and swelling in the hands, ankles or feet.